DISCOVERIES OF THE NEW PLANTS SPECIES IN NORTHWEST GEORGIA, SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES IN THE LATE 19th AND EARLY 20th CENTURIES

by Zvezdana U. Crawford

William M. Canby (1831-1904), a plant collector, botanist, and businessman from Delaware (on the left), and Charles S. Sargent (1841-1927), a founder and director of the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard, Massachusetts in undated photo (1890'). In October of 1898 Canby and Sargent traveled in company of John Muir (1838-1914) , a famous conservationist, and they visited Rome and botanized in the Floyd County. Charles S. Sargent made two more trips to the Floyd County in 1899 and in 1900.

Image by courtesy of Claude E. Phillips Herbarium at Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware who owns and retains all rights to the image.

Chauncey Delos Beadle (1866-1950), a botanist from Biltmore Herbarium, Asheville, North Carolina in 1906 photograph courtesy of Biltmore Estate Archive, Asheville, North Carolina. Beadle discovered seven new species of the hawthorns and Philadelphus floridus Beadle in the Floyd County, Georgia.

The Biltmore Company Asheville, North Carolina owns and retains all rights to the image.

In the late nineteenth century Alvin (Alvan) W. Chapman, a botanist from Florida discovered some new plant species in the Floyd County, Georgia. Plant collector Henry W. Ravenel , from South Carolina discovered a new species of moss also in the Floyd County. Chauncey D. Beadle, a botanist from North Carolina and Charles S. Sargent, collected in the Floyd County and published new species of Crataegus spp. L., Hawthorns in the late 1890’s. These findings made Rome and the surrounding area well-known botanical sites in the scientific world.

The Floyd County (34o16' N and 85o13' W) is in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Northwest Georgia. About 300-600 million years ago deep sediments of sandstone, shale, and limestone were laid down, and area was covered by shallow sea during the Paleozoic. At downtown of the city Rome the Oostanaula and the Etowah Rivers combine to form the Coosa River. The first inhabitants, the Paleo-Indian hunters, arrived in North Georgia over 9,000 years ago.

NEW SPECIES FROM THE FLOYD COUNTY, NORTHWEST GEORGIA

Aureolaria patula (Chapman) Pennell, Spreading Yellow Foxglove, Solidago flaccidifolia Small, Mountain Goldenrod Scutellaria incana Biehler var. punctata (Chapman) C. Mohr, Dotted Skullcap, Scutellaria montana Chapm., Large-Flowered Skullcap,
Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel., Georgia Holly Philadelphus floridus Beadle, Florida Mock Orange Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood Isoetes appalachiana D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britton), Appalachian Quillwort
Cryphaea ravenelii Aust., Ravenel's Cryphaea Moss

Crataegus (Hawthorns)) are small trees or bushes with thorny branches. In the South they occur at the edges of the woods, in the meadows, on the mountain slopes, and in the moist rivers bottoms. They bloom in early spring and their flowers have five white petals. Pomes, fruits come in different colors: red, orange, yellow, brown, green, and blue. Different reproduction processes of hawthorns had resulted in the regional species' variations that have complicated their identification.

NEW CRATAEGUS (HAWTHORNS) SPECIES FROM THE FLOYD COUNTY, NORTHEAST GEORGIA

Crataegus aemula Beadle, Rome Hawthorn Crataegus iracunda Beadle, Stolonbearing Hawthorn Crataegus sargenti Beadle, Sargent's Hawthorn Crataegus tristis Beadle, Minute Hawthorn
Crataegus triflora Chapm., Three-Flower Hawthorn

Synonym : When professional taxonomists with authority conclude that a type specimen (with some morphological differences) has an identity equal to a previously published type specimen its called "taxonomic synonym".

NEW CRATAEGUS (HAWTHORNS) SPECIES FROM THE FLOYD COUNTY, NORTHEAST GEORGIA: SYNONYMS

Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik
( Syn.Crataegus chapmanii (Beadle) Ashe

Crataegus punctata Jacq.,
Syn.Crataegus collina Chapman

Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl.f.)K.Koch
Syn.Crataegus georgiana Sargent

Crataegus crus-galli L.,
Syn. Crataegus macra Beadle

Crataegus crus-galli L.,
Syn. Crataegus mohri Beadle

Crataegus crus-galli L.,
Syn. Crataegus regalis Beadle

Crataegus sororia Beadle

Image: Crataegus tristis Beadle,
Minute Hawthorn, South Rome, Floyd County, Georgia (Apr. 09, 2009)

OTHER CRATAEGUS (HAWTHORNS) SPECIES FROM THE FLOYD COUNTY, NORTHEAST GEORGIA

Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik, Pear hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli L., Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus marshallii Egglest., Parsley hawthorn
Crataegus spathulata Michx., Littlehip Hawthorn Crataegus uniflora Muench., Dwarf hawthorn Crataegus viridis L., Green hawthorn


Acknowledgments :
Dr. Susan E. Yost, Educator at Claude E. Phillips Herbarium, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware took the time and effort to contribute this image of William M. Canby and Charles S. Sargent. June 2009.
Jill Hawkins, Associate Archivist at the Biltmore Estate Archive, Asheville, NC donated scan of Chauncey Delos Beadle's photograph from 1906.

References:
1. Muir, John. "Botany Trip with Sargent and Canby" AMSS Journal, John Muir Papers, Jul-Nov 1897(8), Microfilm Edition, Reel 28, 03506
2. Venard, Haskell (1950-1969) : “Plants reported in the literature from ”Cliffs of the Coosa” or “Coosa river Valley”; “Plants reported in the literature from the vicinity of Rome, Floyd Co., GA”; ”Early collectors who visited Rome”
3. Image taken by Zvezdana U. Crawford, September 04. 2009.
4.USDA, NRCS. 2015. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 27 May 2015). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Last updated on May 27, 2015.

Next page


I. PLANT EXPLORERS (1540-2006) ALVAN W. CHAPMAN LIST OF CHAPMAN'S COLLECTION (1872- 1890's)

II. CRATAEGUS (HAWTHORNS): CLARKE COUNTY, GEORGIA CONTACT


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