Discovery of the new hawthorns (Crataegus) species and some other plants in the Floyd County, Georgia, USA

DISCOVERIES OF THE NEW HAWTHORNS (CRATAEGUS) SPECIES AND SOME OTHER PLANTS IN NORTHWEST GEORGIA, SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

by Zvezdana Ukropina- Crawford

William M. Canby (1831-1904), a plant collector, botanist, and businessman from Delaware (on the left), and Charles S. Sargent (1841-1927), a founder and director of the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard, Massachusetts in undated photo (1890'). In October of 1898 Canby and Sargent traveled in company of John Muir (1838-1914) , a famous conservationist, and they visited Rome and botanized in the Floyd County. Charles S. Sargent made two more trips to the Floyd County in 1899 and in 1900.

Image by courtesy of Claude E. Phillips Herbarium at Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware who owns and retains all rights to the image.

Chauncey Delos Beadle (1866-1950), a botanist from Biltmore Herbarium, Asheville, North Carolina in 1906 photograph courtesy of Biltmore Estate Archive, Asheville, North Carolina. Beadle discovered seven new species of the hawthorns and Philadelphus floridus Beadle, Florida Mock Orange in the Floyd County, Georgia.

The Biltmore Company Asheville, North Carolina owns and retains all rights to the image.

Hawthorns, Haws, (Crataegus; Family: Rosaceae) are thorny bushes or small trees with crooked branches.
Leaves simple and usually lobed; flowers with 5 white or pink petals, stamens 5-25; anthers white, yellow, pink, or red; pome, a fruit small, globose or ovate; color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or black; 2-5 pyrenes.
There are more that 1000 Crataegus species published worldwide. In 1988 W. H. Duncan suggested that there are about 35 species of Crataegus in the Southeastern United States. In the South they occur at the edges of the woods, in the meadows, on the mountain slopes and in the swamps.

Species identification: thorns length, curvature, color; leaves shapes, margins, arrangement (simple, alternate); flowers 1- 3 flowered or in inflorescences (branched cymes); number of stamens; color of anthers; pedicels length; sepals length, margins, glands; pomes, a fruit's shape, size, color; pyrenes number, length, shape
Different reproduction processes of hawthorns had resulted in the regional species' variations that have complicated their identification.

(Synonym : When professional taxonomists with authority conclude that a type specimen (with some morphological differences) has an identity equal to a previously published type specimen its called "taxonomic synonym")
(Topotype is the specimen collected from the locality of the original type specimen.)

CRATAEGUS (HAWTHORNS) SPECIES RECORDED IN THE FLOYD COUNTY, NORTHWEST GEORGIA FROM 2005-2009

Crataegus aemula Beadle, Rome Hawthorn

Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik, Pear hawthorn

Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik, Syn. Crataegus chapmanii (Beadle) Ashe

Crataegus punctata Jacq.,
Syn. Crataegus collina Chapman

Crataegus crus-galli L., Cockspur Hawthorn

Crataegus iracunda Beadle, Stolonbearing Hawthorn

Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl.f.)K.Koch
Syn. Crataegus georgiana Sargent

Crataegus marshallii Egglest., Parsley hawthorn

Crataegus sargenti Beadle, Sargent's Hawthorn

Crataegus sororia Beadle

Crataegus spathulata Michx., Littlehip Hawthorn

Crataegus uniflora Muench., Dwarf hawthorn

Crataegus triflora Chapm., Three-Flower Hawthorn

Crataegus tristis Beadle, Minute Hawthorn

Crataegus viridis L., Green hawthorn

The Floyd County (34o16' N and 85o13' W) is in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Northwest Georgia. About 300-600 million years ago deep sediments of sandstone, shale, and limestone were laid down, and area was covered by shallow sea during the Paleozoic. The first inhabitants, the Paleo-Indian hunters, arrived in North Georgia over 9,000 years ago.
In the late nineteenth century Alvin (Alvan) W. Chapman , a botanist from Florida botanized in the Floyd County and discovered: Aureolaria patula (Chapman) Pennell, Spreading Yellow Foxglove; Ilex longipes Chapman ex Trel., Georgia Holly; Isoetes appalachiana D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britton), Appalachian Quillwort; Scutellaria incana Biehler var. punctata (Chapman) C. Mohr, Dotted Skullcap; Scutellaria montana Chapm., Large-Flowered Skullcap; Solidago flaccidifolia Small, Mountain Goldenrod; Viburnum bracteatum Rehder, Limerock Arrow-Wood; Crataegus triflora Chapm., Three-Flower Hawthorn, and Syn.Crataegus collina Chapman.

Plant collector Henry W. Ravenel , from South Carolina discovered a new species of moss Cryphaea ravenelii Aust., Ravenel's Cryphaea Moss in the Floyd County.


Acknowledgments :
Dr. Susan E. Yost, Educator at Claude E. Phillips Herbarium, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware took the time and effort to contribute this image of William M. Canby and Charles S. Sargent. June 2009.
Jill Hawkins, Associate Archivist at the Biltmore Estate Archive, Asheville, NC donated scan of Chauncey Delos Beadle's photograph from 1906.

References:
1. Muir, John. "Botany Trip with Sargent and Canby" AMSS Journal, John Muir Papers, Jul-Nov 1897(8), Microfilm Edition, Reel 28, 03506
2. Venard, Haskell (1950-1969) : “Plants reported in the literature from ”Cliffs of the Coosa” or “Coosa river Valley”; “Plants reported in the literature from the vicinity of Rome, Floyd Co., GA”; ”Early collectors who visited Rome”
3. Image taken by Zvezdana U. Crawford, September 04. 2009.
4.USDA, NRCS. 2015. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 27 May 2015). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Last updated on January 29, 2016.

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BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS (1540-1913)

ALVAN W. CHAPMAN

LIST OF CHAPMAN'S COLLECTION (1872- 1890's)

CRATAEGUS (HAWTHORNS): NORTHEAST GEORGIA


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